[14], Chital are active throughout the day. They mainly eat different kinds of sprouting grass, tree branches, fruits, and even the antlers they shed. During the winter they could eat just about anything without giving it a second thought. Sparring between males begins with the larger male displaying his dominance before the other; this display consists of hissing heading away from the other male with the tail facing him, the nose pointing to the ground, the ears down, the antlers upright, and the upper lip raised. The pedicles (the bony cores from which antlers arise) are shorter and the auditory bullae are smaller in the chital. The antlers and brow tines are longer than those in the hog deer. [25][29] Studies in the Nallamala Hills (Andhra Pradesh, India) and the Western Ghats (western coast of India) showed seasonal variation in the sex ratio of herds; this was attributed to the tendency of females to isolate themselves ahead of parturition. Near the belly the spots may merge to form a horizontal stripe. India) the Chital Deer is usually found in large numbers throughout the forests and open grasslands, with the highest number of Chital Deer being found in the forest of India where they like to munch on grasses and shrubs. [37][38], In the 1860s, axis deer were introduced to the island of Molokai, Hawaii, as a gift from Hong Kong to King Kamehameha V. The deer were introduced to Lanai, another of the Hawaiian Islands, soon afterward and are now plentiful on both islands. The longevity in the wild, however, is merely five to ten years. [44], The chital is listed by the IUCN as being of least concern "because it occurs over a very wide range within which there are many large populations". (1964). sprouting grass, tree branches, fruits, and even the antlers they [25] These deer typically move in a single file on specific tracks, with a distance of two to three times their width between them, when on a journey, typically in search of food and water sources. [15], The dorsal (upper) parts are golden to rufous, completely covered in white spots. Similarly, rutting males leave their herds during the mating season, hence altering the herd composition. Lions in India are often found feeding on domestic animals and some other wild prey. The upper parts are golden to rufous, completely covered in white spots. [2] However a morphological analysis in 2004 showed significant differences between Axis and Hyelaphus. Foraging recommences by late afternoon and continues till midnight. [1][45][46], Herd grazing while one (on left) keeps watch at Sudarnakhali, Sundarbans, Herd of chital does at Ranthambore National park. Courtship is based on tending bonds. The chital (/ tʃ iː t əl /) (Axis axis), also known as spotted deer, chital deer, and axis deer, is a species of deer that is native to the Indian subcontinent.It was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777. While the males do fight with each other for mating rights, there is a unique process with this particular species of deer. The biggest distinction is the dark brown stripe running down the chital's back. Chital are mainly herbivores. It is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and antlers are present only on males. In India, lions take a mixed type of diet. [20] Antlers, as in most other cervids, are shed annually. shed. Because the deer have no natural predators on the Hawaiian islands, their population is growing 20 to 30% each year, causing serious damage to agriculture and natural areas. [23], Hooves measure between 4.1 and 6.1 cm (1.6 and 2.4 in) in length; hooves of the fore legs are longer than those of the hind legs. Males reach nearly 90 cm (35 in) and females 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder; the head-and-body length is around 1.7 m (5.6 ft). Water holes are visited nearly twice daily, with great caution. The chital was estimated to have diverged from the Rucervus lineage in the Early Pliocene (five million years ago). [17][25], A vocal animal, the chital, akin to the North American elk, gives out bellows and alarm barks. Individuals tend to group together and forage while moving slowly. These did not survive and the primary range of the chital is now confined to a few cattle stations in North Queensland near Charters Towers and several feral herds on the NSW north coast. Chital, (Cervus axis, sometimes Axis axis), Asiatic deer, belonging to the family Cervidae (order Artiodactyla). As to give birth twice that year showed that Hyelaphus is closer to the family Cervidae ( Artiodactyla... The pair does several bouts of chasing and mutual licking before copulation wild, however population... 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