The place name appears in Sweden in several forms as Säter and Sätra, and as a suffix: -säter, -sätra, -sätt and -sättra. Traditionally, villages were divided in two, three or even four distinct settlements (one for each season) at different heights of a mountain slope. It consists of a frame traditionally covered with rush mats. The Nama clan resides in the northwestern parts of South Africa where they migrate seasonally with their livestock. '. Although there are substantial cultural and technological variations, the underlying practices for taking advantage of remote seasonal pastures are similar. Transhumance related to sheep farming is still practised in Georgia. Transhumance: The seasonal movement of people and their livestock over short distances for example to high grounds during summer and lower grounds during winter. Some settlements, like Ehden and Kfarsghab, are used during summer periods from beginning of June till mid-October. "Seter" redirects here. Not to be confused with Kochi or Kuchi nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples of Southern Afghanistan and Pakistan. In many languages there are words for the higher summer pastures, and frequently these words have been used as place names: e.g. Transhumance developed on every inhabited continent. The common mountain or forest pasture used for transhumance in summer is called seter or bod / bua. Criollos and indigenous peoples use transhumant practices in areas of South America. [7] Both "Hafod" and "Hendref" survive in Wales as place names and house names and in one case as the name of a raw milk cow cheese (Hafod). — Alex Treadway, National Geographic, "UN Announces 23 New Nature Reserves While U.S. Removes 17," 14 June 2017. [16] The mountain period starts in late May or early June,[17] and ends in early October. Herders have a permanent home, typically in valleys. Spanish transhumance is the origin of numerous related cultures in the Americas such as the Cowboys of the United States and the Gauchos of Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. In rural areas, the Somali and Afar of Northeast Africa also traditionally practice nomadic transhumance. Transhumance in the Pyrenees involves relocation of livestock (cows, sheep, horses) to high mountains for summer months, because farms in the lowland are too small to support a larger herd all year round. Most of the livestock are goats. Gravity. Transhumance, in most cases relying on use of public land, continues to be an important ranching practice in the western United States. In the Autumn after the grain and fruit harvest livestock are brought back to spend the winter stall fed in stables.[24]. Their economy is based on a combination of the cultivation of grain on terraced fields—mostly irrigated and plowed with bullocks—and the breeding of oxen, buffalo, sheep, goats, and donkeys. "Transhumance and pastoralist resilience in the western United States". In their yearly migrations for fresh pastures, the Kashkai drove their livestock from south to north, where they lived in summer quarters, known as Yeilak, in the high mountains from April to October. But as national states appeared in the area of the former Ottoman Empire, new state borders were developed that divided the summer and winter habitats of many of the pastoral groups. In the southern Appalachians of the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries, settlers often pastured livestock, especially sheep, on grassy bald mountain tops where wild oats predominate. STUDY. Transmigration When the area was part of the Austro-Hungary and Ottoman empires, borders between Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and the former Yugoslavia were relatively unobstructed. Some examples of human geography include cultural landscapes and phenomena, such as language, music and art. In some high valleys of the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains, transhumant herding has been the main, or only, economic activity. For instance, farmers with livestock in Dogu'a Tembien[29][30] organise annual transhumance, particularly towards remote and vast grazing grounds, deep in valleys (where the grass grows early due to temperature) or mountain tops. Free practice questions for AP Human Geography - Pastoralism. Core-periphery models of economic development generally describe the idea that For other uses, see. The community practices nomadic transhumance, with seasonal movement occurring between grasslands of Kenya (North Pokot sub-county) and Uganda (Amudat, Nakapiripirit and Moroto districts) (George Magak Oguna, 2014). This is the principle of distance decay. These dwellings are used in their seasonal camps in the Richtersveld. A Vocabulary List for AP Human Geography Martha Sharma Retired teacher Hilton Head, South Carolina Unit II. Transhumance is integral to Kyrgyz national culture. Those names appear extensively over Sweden with a centre in the Mälaren basin and in Östergötland. [13] However, it is likely to have been undertaken on a much smaller scale than elsewhere in Europe.[5]:8. In the 21st century, the people sometimes use a variety of manufactured materials. In recognition of its significance, the Richtersveld has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[32]. Transhumance is currently practised at least in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia,[37] as well as in the Brazilian Pantanal. Transhumance is a type of pastoralism or nomadism, a seasonal movement of livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures. The practice was widespread in the west of Ireland up until the time of the Second World War. It is unclear whether efforts will be made to preserve these historic managed ecosystems. 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